A final section deals with the authenticity of certain controversial decrees enacted at Constance. In there were three claimants to the papacy, for the schism arising out of the disputed election of see urban vi, pope had been complicated by the creation of a third line of popes at the Council of pisa summoned in by dissident cardinals of both Roman and Avignonese obediences.
It was the second pope of this Pisan line, styled antipope john xxiii, who summoned the Council of Constance.
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He did so reluctantly and under extreme pressure from King sigismund, the emperorelect, who played a leading role at the council as its official protector. Several of the leading theorists of the Conciliarism [see conciliarism history of ] were also active in managing the affairs of the assembly, and from the outset many fathers showed themselves determined to end the schism at all costs, even if this involved an attack on the traditional doctrine of papal sovereignty and the substitution of a theory of conciliar supremacy. John XXIII hoped that the council would be content to condemn his two rivals, gregory xii and antipope bene dict xiii; and he relied on the support of the numerous Italian prelates at Constance — nearly half the bishops present at the opening session were Italians — to prevent any attack on his own position.
This hope was frustrated when the English and German representatives insisted on a system of voting by nations, each national group casting one vote in the formal sessions of the council. At first the assembly was divided into four nations — English, French, German and Italian — and a fifth was added after Spanish delegates joined the council in October of All debate was carried on in separate assemblies of the nations and in a steering committee composed of deputies elected from each nation.
When unanimity was reached among the nations, a general session of the whole council formally promulgated the decisions arrived at without further discussion. The cardinals complained that this system excluded them from any effective voice in the deliberations of the council and in May of they were allowed to appoint six representatives to the committee of deputies of the nations.
Notorious Council of Constance - Church History Timeline
In July, the sacred college began to cast one vote in the general sessions along with the votes of the four nations. At the beginning of the council began to attack the grievous problems of the schism. John XXIII was in an especially vulnerable position since he had led a notoriously evil life, and in February it was suggested that the council should appoint a commission to investigate his alleged crimes. Faced with the threat of a public scandal, John solemnly promised to abdicate at the second general session of the council held on March 2, but then he changed his mind and fled from the council on March 20, taking refuge with Duke Frederick of Austria.
In these circumstances the prelates assembled at Constance could continue to function as a general council only if they were prepared to assert that the members of a council, separated from the pope, enjoyed direct divine guidance and possessed full authority over the Church. In fact, his action had the effect of pushing the fathers into extreme statements of conciliar supremacy that many of the moderates would have preferred to avoid. King Sigismund took the lead in organizing a third general session March 26 , which decreed that the council.
Constance, Council of
The French, English and German nations then agreed on a statement asserting in general terms the superiority of general councils over the papacy [see councils, general ecumenical , theology of]. The cardinals protested to Sigismund against the enactment of such a decree, and at the fourth general session March 30 a more moderate one was read by Cardinal Francesco za barella and approved.
This decree asserted only that the particular council then assembled at Constance possessed authority over the pope "in matters pertaining to the faith and the ending of the present schism. This did not satisfy the more radical conciliarists, and antipapal feeling at Constance reached a new height during the following week as it became evident that John had no intention of rejoining the council and that he might well revoke his promise to abdicate.
At the fifth general session April 6 the council enacted the decree Sacrosancta, containing the full statement on conciliar supremacy originally approved by the nations. Seven cardinals attended the session and acquiesced in the promulgation of the decree, though Zabarella refused to read it.
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The controversial enactment declared:. This holy synod of Constance, constituting a General Council and lawfully assembled to root out the present schism and bring about the reform of the church in head and members … declares that, being lawfully assembled in the Holy Spirit , constituting a General Council and representing the Catholic Church militant, it holds power immediately from Christ and that anyone of whatsoever state or dignity, even the papal, is bound to obey it in matters which pertain to the faith, the rooting out of the said schism and the general reform of the church in head and members.
Further it declares that any person of whatsoever rank, state or dignity, even the papal, who contumaciously refuses to obey the mandates, statutes, ordinances or instructions made or to be made by this holy synod or by any other General Council lawfully assembled concerning the aforesaid matters or matters pertaining to them shall, unless he repents, be subjected to fitting penance and duly punished, recourse being had if necessary to other sanctions of the law.
Frankfurt-Leipzig — ]. The authenticity of the decree is discussed below. Sigismund made war on Frederick of Austria, who quickly submitted and the pope was arrested in Germany on May 17 and brought back to the council as a prisoner. On May 29 he was declared guilty of perjury, simony and scandalous misconduct and was formally deposed from the papacy. John accepted the sentence meekly and relinquished all claim to the papal throne. Once he was removed from the scene, Gregory XII , the pope of the Roman line, conveyed to the council his willingness to abdicate provided that he was permitted to convoke the assembled prelates for a second time as a general council and so assert once more the legitimacy of his own line of popes.
The prelates at Constance were in no mood to make difficulties and they consented to this procedure. Gregory's abdication was formally accepted by the council on July 4, Sigismund undertook a journey to Perpignan to try persuading him to abdicate too, but the aged pontiff remained obdurate to the end. At this point December of his own cardinals and the Spanish kings and bishops at last abandoned his cause and agreed to join the Council at Constance. On July 26, , Benedict was declared guilty of perjury, heresy and schism and deprived of all rights to the papacy.
After complicated disputes about the manner of electing a new pope it was agreed that six deputies from each nation, as well as the cardinals of all three obediences, should participate in the conclave. For a valid election the support of two-thirds of the cardinals and two-thirds of the deputies of each nation was required.
The conclave lasted only three days and on Nov. He took the name martin v.
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With his election the Western Schism came to an end. The most important doctrinal issues considered at Constance were those raised by wyclif and hus concerning the nature of the Church and the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Wyclif's teachings had already been condemned in England by Archbishop William courtenay ; they were again condemned at Constance.
Meanwhile from the first years of the 15th century, Hus had begun to spread Wyclifite doctrines in Bohemia. His teaching there had an explosive effect because it became identified with a resurgence of Czech national feeling directed against the German and Catholic imperial authority; underlying all the major problems that faced the council was a growing tension between new nationalist loyalties and the old ideal of a united Christendom.
Hus traveled voluntarily to Constance in order to defend his position. He received a safe-conduct from Sigismund, but this protected him only from illegal violence not from judicial proceedings before the council and Hus was in fact treated with scant courtesy.asianettest.vidgyor.com/1643.php
Constance, Council of
He was arrested for presuming to say Mass while under sentence of suspension and then questioned over a period of five weeks by interrogators who showed no interest in exploring the possibilities of a reconciliation but aimed only at Hus's total submission or immediate condemnation. He was finally found guilty of heresy in a general session of the council, and on the same day July 6, he was burned at the stake by the secular power. Although Hus's teachings were certainly unorthodox, the extreme harshness of the treatment meted out to him must be explained in part by personal and national antagonisms.
Above all, his refusal to accept the authority of the council in a matter of faith struck at the very heart of the conciliar claim to represent the universal Church and to hold its authority directly from Christ. The council could not acquiesce in such an attitude without abandoning its own pretensions. The same session that condemned Hus's teachings considered also another doctrinal problem, the licitness of tyrannicide.
The council condemned in general terms the proposition that "any subject or vassal can and should licitly and meritoriously kill any tyrant … without awaiting the sentence or mandate of any judge" Magnum oecumenicum Constantiense concilium, But, in spite of repeated pleas by Jean gerson, the fathers refused to condemn the writings of Joannes Parvus specifically.
A somewhat similar case arose in in connection with a work of the Dominican John of falkenberg. He maintained that it was licit to assassinate the Polish king or exterminate the Polish people because they had allied themselves with pagans against the teutonic knights.
The Council of Constance puts an end to the Three-Pope-Controversy
His tract was denounced as heretical by a commission appointed to examine it and by the nations, but it was not formally condemned in a general session of the council. From the beginning, the leaders of the council had regarded the reform of the Church as one of their principal objectives; and from the point of view of the bishops at Constance, the reforms most obviously needed were a reduction of papal taxation and a diminution of the papal power to make ecclesiastical appointments within their dioceses.
A dispute arose then as to whether the council, functioning as sovereign head of the Church, should carry through the work of reform before electing a new pope or whether the task should be undertaken after an election, by pope and council together. The dispute was complicated by a growing antagonism between the French and English nations arising out of the circumstances of the Hundred Years' War, but by early October of a compromise was reached.
Cruises, great walking, island hopping and plenty more — the largest town on Lake Constance offers fun-packed activities in and on the water throughout the year. You can find an overview of unmissable experiences in the great outdoors and exciting days out. The flea market in Constance features more than 1, stalls and is the largest in southern Germany.
The greatest success of the Council of Constance was the election of the pope and with it the end to the Western Schism of the Middle Ages. Cruises, great walking, island hopping and plenty more — the largest town on Lake Constance offers fun-packed activities in and on the water throughout the year. You can find an overview of unmissable experiences in the great outdoors and exciting days out.